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Bitcoin’s Unseen Crisis: Circulation Plummets to 13-Year Low

Bitcoin's Unseen Crisis

Bitcoin, once hailed as the future of digital cash, is seeing its role evolve in unexpected ways. Recent on-chain data reveals a dramatic decline in the circulation of Bitcoin, raising questions about its current function and future potential. The significant drop in Bitcoin’s “velocity,” an indicator of how frequently the cryptocurrency is being used in transactions, suggests a shift in user behavior and a departure from its original vision as electronic cash.

Understanding Bitcoin Velocity

The concept of “velocity” in the cryptocurrency world refers to the rate at which coins move from one address to another. A high velocity indicates frequent transactions, implying active use of the currency for payments and exchanges. Conversely, a low velocity suggests that coins are being held rather than circulated.

Ki Young Ju, the founder and CEO of Crypto Quant, highlighted this trend in a recent post on X (formerly Twitter). The data shows that Bitcoin’s velocity has seen a steep decline, reaching levels not observed since 2011. This suggests that Bitcoin is no longer being used as electronic cash by its user base.

The Decline in Circulation

During the 2021 bull run, Bitcoin’s velocity surged, peaking in the middle of the 2022 bear market. However, this upward trend was short-lived. Following its peak, the velocity metric began a sharp decline, continuing until the end of 2023. Since then, it has remained stagnant at historically low levels.

This trend is alarming for those who view Bitcoin as a medium of exchange. The current low velocity indicates that Bitcoin is being hoarded rather than spent, contradicting its intended purpose as a peer-to-peer (P2P) electronic cash system.

Implications of Reduced Velocity

The reduction in Bitcoin’s velocity has significant implications for its role in the financial ecosystem. Originally designed by Satoshi Nakamoto as a decentralized form of digital cash, Bitcoin was meant to facilitate everyday transactions without the need for intermediaries. However, the current trend suggests that users are treating Bitcoin more like “digital gold”—a store of value rather than a medium of exchange.

Ki Young Ju emphasizes this shift in user behavior, stating, “Despite Satoshi’s vision of ‘P2P Electronic Cash,’ Bitcoin is primarily used as ‘Digital Gold,’ with institutions holding it without frequent transactions.” This transition reflects a broader trend where Bitcoin is increasingly seen as an investment asset rather than a currency for daily use.

The Role of Institutions

The involvement of institutional investors has played a significant role in this shift. Large financial institutions and corporations have been accumulating Bitcoin as a hedge against inflation and economic instability. This institutional adoption has bolstered Bitcoin’s reputation as a reliable store of value, but it has also contributed to the decline in its circulation.

By holding significant amounts of Bitcoin, these institutions reduce the overall liquidity in the market, leading to lower velocity. This hoarding behavior contrasts sharply with the early days of Bitcoin when individual users primarily drove transactions and liquidity.

Future Prospects

While the current low velocity is concerning for those who support Bitcoin’s use as electronic cash, it’s important to consider the cyclical nature of the cryptocurrency market. Historically, Bitcoin has gone through phases of high and low velocity, often influenced by market conditions, regulatory changes, and technological advancements.

Ju remains optimistic about Bitcoin’s potential to regain its transactional role, stating that Bitcoin’s velocity will “peak someday when BTC is widely used for payments.” For this to happen, several factors need to align. First, technological improvements, such as the widespread adoption of the Lightning Network, could facilitate faster and cheaper transactions, making Bitcoin more practical for everyday use.

Second, regulatory clarity and broader acceptance by merchants and consumers could encourage more frequent use of Bitcoin for payments. Lastly, changes in market sentiment and economic conditions could shift the focus back to Bitcoin’s original purpose as a decentralized currency.


Bitcoin’s current trajectory as a low-velocity asset highlights the evolving nature of the cryptocurrency market. While it has strayed from Satoshi Nakamoto’s vision of a P2P electronic cash system, it has found a new role as digital gold. The significant drop in circulation underscores the importance of understanding the changing dynamics and user behavior in the crypto space.

As the market continues to mature, the future of Bitcoin remains uncertain but full of potential. Whether it reclaims its role as a widely used medium of exchange or continues to be valued as a store of value, Bitcoin’s journey is far from over. For now, investors and enthusiasts alike will be watching closely to see how this pioneering cryptocurrency adapts to the ever-evolving financial landscape.

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Julie J

Julie is a renowned crypto journalist with a passion for uncovering the latest trends in blockchain and cryptocurrency. With over a decade of experience, she has become a trusted voice in the industry, providing insightful analysis and in-depth reporting on groundbreaking developments. Julie's work has been featured in leading publications, solidifying her reputation as a leading expert in the field.

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